You will need to be the root user and navigate to: /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
When getting a list of files in the directory you will see "ifcfg-eth0" (or eth1 if you're doing it for a different adapter)
Now adding the virtual adapters is easy. Basically if the main adapter is called "eth0" you have to call the next (virtual) adapter in a sequential order like so:
- ifcfg-eth0 (primary adapter, physical)
- ifcfg-eth0:1 (first virtual adapter to the physical primary adapter)
- ifcfg-eth0:2 (second virtual adapter to the physical primary adapter)
- and so on...
That being said, lets go ahead and copy our primary adapter configuration file and name it to be the first virtual adapter for the physical primary:
# cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth0:1 # ls -l | grep ifcfg-eth -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 119 Jan 11 19:16 ifcfg-eth0 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 119 Feb 24 08:53 ifcfg-eth0:1 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 119 Jan 3 08:45 ifcfg-eth0.bak -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 119 Feb 24 04:34 ifcfg-eth1 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 128 Jan 19 18:20 ifcfg-eth1.bak
Now, we have to configure this virtual adapter to be: a static IP (of course), no hardware address (MAC), configure netmask and of course rename the device.
# vim ifcfg-eth0:1 DEVICE=eth0:1 BOOTPROTO=static ONBOOT=yes IPADDR=10.1.1.2 NETMASK=255.255.255.0
There is no need to specify a MAC address as it is a virtual adapter and there is also no need to specify a default gateway as it is already routed through the primary adapter. Basically there are only four things that you will need to change:
- File name for the adapter itself
- DEVICE=<device name> (should correspond with the file name)
- IPADDR=<ip address>
Afterwards, just restart the networking service:
# service network restart
That's it; lets check ifconfig to make sure the virtual adapter is there and working:
# ifconfig eth0:1 eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:ED:05:B7 inet addr:10.1.1.2 Bcast:10.1.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 # ping 10.1.1.2 PING 10.1.1.2 (10.1.1.2) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.073 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.042 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.029 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.029 ms --- 10.1.1.2 ping statistics --- 4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 2999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.029/0.043/0.073/0.018 ms
Per Steven's comment: a second note. If you're not sure if you've done it right and you do not want to restart the entire network server, you can use the following:
# ifup eth0:1
One of the site security scan report shows me that our webserver has vulnerabilities as it is supporting RC4 cipher in SSL/TLS encryption. So how to disable it?
Disabling RC4 cipher in Apache webserver.
Here are the two steps:
1. Add this line on “/etc/sysconfig/httpd” file (I’m using RedHat OS)
2. Add the following lines in your virtualhost area created for https.
Now you almost done !! You can verify it over https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html
In my case, I’m still getting the same error showing that it is still enabled. Here is the trick, I got to know that Amazon Elastic Loadbalencer is doing SSL acceleration for my project and this should be done on that area.
a. Go to Loadbalencer area and choose your LB, Click on “Change cipher”
b. Choose “Custom LB policy”
c. Un check RC4-SHA and ECDHE-ECDSA-RC4-SHA and save
Then re-run the SSL lab test and you will see the result finally !!
Here are numerous regular Linux charges that will be useful to you, in the event that you ever even utilize the order line interface in Linux. Most normal clients simply utilize the graphical client interface rather which more often than not has numerous apparatuses and front-finishes to Linux basic summons. This Linux instructional exercise on charge orders will even the normal client in the event that X server accidents, comes up short, is not appropriately designed, and so on. So keep perusing for a portion of the more basic Linux bash charges.
- ls Displays everything in the current directory
- ls -a Displays all files, including hidden
- ls -l Displays all files, along with the size and timestamp
- tar -zxpf Uncompresses tar.gz files
- tar -xpf Uncompresses .tar files
- gunzip Uncompresses .gz files
- cp /path/to/old /path/to/new Copies a file to a new file
- mv /path/to/old /path/to/new Moves a file to a new file, or rename
- mkdir Creates a directory
- rmdir Deletes a directory
- rm Deletes a file
- rm -rf Deletes a directory
- cd /path/to/dir Moves to a directory
- cd .. Move up one directory
- cd ~ Moves to your home directory
- cd – Moves to the previous directory
- pwd Displays the present working directory (the one you’re in)
- pico Edits a file
- ftp Connect to a FTP server
- lynx View a webpage
- df Displays the hard drive stats
- quota Displays your quota
- uptime Displays the uptime of the server
- uname -a Displays the operating system stats
- whoami Displays your info
- who Displays others connected to the server
- last Displays the last login
- whereis Tells where a file is located
- BitchX IRC Client
- mail Check your email
- ps -x Displays processes your running
- ps -a Displays all processes running
- ps -ux Displays running processes, with CPU/Memory usage
- kill pid# Kills a process
- kill -9 pid# Kills an eggdrop process
- killall proc_name Kills all running process of the same type
- whatis Description of commands
- man command Displays help on the command (manual)
- nano Same as Pico (Use yum install nano if it doesn’t first work)
- Top – gives an overall view of what is going on with the server including memory usage, serve load and running processes “q” to exit top
- sar -q gives a report of the process list, 1 minute and 5 minute average load every 10 minutes since midnight server time
- tar -zcf filename.tar.gz file Tars up the file or directory of your choice, replace filename.tar.gzwith the name you want your tar file to have…with the tar.gz extension on the end and replace file with the file or directory you want to tar up. Can also use a path/to/file for both.
- updatedb – Updates the locate/search DB.
netstat -n -p
Useful to see who is connected to your server, this also resolves hostnames to IP addresses and the -p switch shows you what each person connected is doing and provides a PID for it if there is one… useful if you need to kill something
find / -user username
Replace username with a username of one of your account to find all the files that belong to them. Also useful to add the |more switch so you can scroll one screen at a time. Ever have a client who seems to show a lot more files than are actually in their home directory? This is how you find those files and fix them. Common problem is cpmove files that don’t get properly deleted and get added to a users account.
Replace username with a user on your system. This should be done from the home directory. Useful for manually backing up an account if whm copy account doesn’t work. Then just move (mv) the file to a home directory accessible via the web and
chown user.user filename
and chmod to 750 or 755 and you can wget it from a different server if need be.
Once you’ve got the file and need to unpack it you use this command. The file should be in the /home directory to use this though. Remember folks…. username…. not cpmove-username.tar.gz
edit the crontab file and see what is set to run in there.
–help (add to end of the command following a single space)
Such as tar –help, similar to man it digs up info on any given command.
tail -10 filename
gives you the last 10 lines of a file. Can change the # to whatever you want.
cp -R FileOrDirectory path/to/destination
the -R allows you to copy an entire directory to somewhere else.
not just for eggdrops… it’s called a “hard kill” and handy for killing off any stubborn process that refuses to die.
whereis filename (use the * as a wildcard or for broader search)
can also use locate or find (although locate is faster)
not just for killing programs.. you can also killall to kill all processes being run by a user. Handy if you have an abuser eating up system resources.
service servicename restart
Stop a service:
service servicename stop
Start a service:
service servicename start
Status (doesn’t work on all):
service servicename status
On a RedHat CPanel server, here are the useful services: (CentOS, x10′s default OS for VPSs, is a stripped-down RedHat OS.)
Root crontab: (can be used by any user with crontab permissions to edit their crontab. If you are running this as “root” it will edit root’s crontab, and the same goes for any other user. When “bob” runs crontab -e, he will edit his own crontab and not root’s, though he can only edit his own crontab if he has permissions.)
To edit a users cron jobs: (run as a super-user, such as root. not available to regular users.)
crontab -u username -e
Replace username with the actual username of the client you want to edit.
(We’re still talking about RedHat [CentOS] that is running cPanel below. You can do most, if not all, of this from the WHM, so feel free to skip ahead a bit. )
- /scripts/adddns Add a Dns Entry
- /scripts/addfpmail Install Frontpage Mail Exts
- /scripts/addservlets Add JavaServlets to an account (jsp plugin required)
- /scripts/adduser Add a User
- /scripts/admin Run WHM Lite
- /scripts/apachelimits Add Rlimits (cpu and mem limits) to apache.
- /scripts/dnstransfer Resync with a master DNS Server
- /scripts/editquota Edit A User’s Quota
- /scripts/finddev Search For Trojans in /dev
- /scripts/findtrojans Locate Trojan Horses
- Suggested Usage:
- /scripts/findtrojans < /var/log/trojans
- /scripts/fixtrojans < /var/log/trojans
- /scripts/fixcartwithsuexec Make Interchange work with suexec
- /scripts/fixinterchange Fix Most Problems with Interchange
- /scripts/fixtrojans Run on a trojans horse file created by findtrojans to remove them
- /scripts/fixwebalizer Run this if a user’s stats stop working
- /scripts/fixvaliases Fix a broken valias file
- /scripts/hdparamify Turn on DMA and 32bit IDE hard drive access (once per boot)
- /scripts/initquotas Re-scan quotas. Usually fixes Disk space display problems
- /scripts/initsuexec Turn on SUEXEC (probably a bad idea)
- /scripts/installzendopt Fetch + Install Zend Optimizer
- /scripts/ipusage Display Ipusage Report
- /scripts/killacct Terminate an Account
- /scripts/killbadrpms Delete \”Security Problem Infested RPMS\”
- /scripts/mailperm Fix Various Mail Permission Problems
- /scripts/mailtroubleshoot Attempt to Troubleshoot a Mail Problem
- /scripts/mysqlpasswd Change a Mysql Password
- /scripts/quicksecure Kill Potential Security Problem Services
- /scripts/rebuildippool Rebuild Ip Address Pool
- /scripts/remdefssl Delete Nasty SSL entry in apache default httpd.conf
- /scripts/restartsrv Restart a Service (valid services: httpd,proftpd,exim,sshd,cppop,bind,mysql)
- /scripts/rpmup Syncup Security Updates from RedHat/Mandrake
- /scripts/runlogsnow Force a webalizer/analog update.
- /scripts/secureit Remove non-important suid binaries
- /scripts/setupfp4 Install Frontpage 4+ on an account.
- /scripts/simpleps Return a Simple process list. Useful for finding where cgi scripts are running from.
- /scripts/suspendacct Suspend an account
- /scripts/sysup Syncup Cpanel RPM Updates
- /scripts/ulimitnamed RH 6 only. Install a version of bind to handle many many zones.
- /scripts/unblockip Unblock an IP
- /scripts/unsuspendacct UnSuspend an account
- /scripts/upcp Update Cpanel
- /scripts/updatenow Update /scripts
- /scripts/wwwacct Create a New Account
Empty /tmp folder
rm -R -f /tmp/c*
rm -R -f /tmp/s*
rm -R -f /tmp/p*
rm -R -f /tmp/*_*
rm -R -f /tmp/*-*
AWStats is one of the maximum usually using cPanel tool to analyse internet site site visitors summary. you may analyse loads of factors from here like range of visits, Pages, Hits, Bandwidth and so on. In some extraordinary conditions, you can get this problem with AWStats, it’s not updating mechanically. There are a variety of reasons at the back of this hassle including document permission. here I’m listing a few points to check if you acquire this problem with AWStats.
You can simply access and analyse this from the cPanel itself. Please do follow the steps:
1, Log into cPanel.
2, Move to;
Logs >> AWStats
How to update AWStats manually?
You can do this from cPanel and also from the command line. You must have root access to server. You can do this:
1, SSH to server as root.
Why AWStats is not updating automatically?
1, SSH to server as root.
2, Change the directory to:
There are the conf files for domains under that particular cPanel account. We need to make sure that the directive “AllowToUpdateStatsFromBrowser” is set to 1.
grep AllowToUpdateStatsFromBrowser awstats.example.com.conf
root@tsting [/home/****/tmp/awstats]# grep AllowToUpdateStatsFromBrowser awstats.servernoobs.com.conf
# Warning: If you want to be able to use the "AllowToUpdateStatsFromBrowser"
Also please check the permission of “/usr/local/cpanel/3rdparty/bin/awstats.pl” file. It must be 775.
# ll /usr/local/cpanel/3rdparty/bin/awstats.pl
-rwxrwxr-x. 1 root root 679172 Aug 23 2009 /usr/local/cpanel/3rdparty/bin/awstats.pl*
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Follow these simple instructions to install Memcache and Memcached:
Step 1: Login into your WHM panel and using easyapache enable Memcache (you must recompile apache)
Step 2: SSH into your server and fire this command:
yum install memcached.x86_64 php-pecl-memcache.x86_64
Step 3: Go to Software -> Module Installers -> PHP Pecl, Search for memcache and then install both memcache & memcached
Step 4: Restart apache once, Fire: service httpd restart
Step 5: Start memcache by firing this command: memcached -d -m 512 -l 127.0.0.1 -p 11211 -u nobody
(d = daemon, m = memory, u = user, l = IP to listen to, p = port)
Step 6: Check your memcached server is running successfully: ps -eaf | grep memcached
All Done! If everything goes good, You should now be able to use memcached within your application.